The Republic of Singapore is made up of one main island and 58 small islands and islets at the southern tip of peninsular Malaysia. The capital city, which is also called Singapore, covers a third of the main island of Singapore. The largest of the other islands are Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and Sentosa. Singapore is 135 km miles north of the equator and is the Asian city nearest to it.

Singapore is separated from the rest of the Malayan Peninsula to the north, east and west by the Johor Strait. To the south is the Strait of Singapore, which links the South China Sea to the east and the Strait of Malacca and the Indian Ocean to the west. The main island of Singapore is fairly flat, with some highlands in the central area. The island was once covered by jungles and swamps, but most have been cleared to allow for development.

The Singapore River has always been the centre of settlement on the island, because of its important role in trade. On other rivers, such as the Kalang and its tributaries, dams have been built to create artificial reservoirs.

Singapore lies in the path of two monsoons (tropical winds) that cause rainfall all year round. Most rainfall occurs during the northeast monsoon from November to March. During the southwest monsoon season from, June to September, much of the rain falls in short, intense showers that alternate with sunshine. Thunderstorms are frequent in April and October. The average daily humidity is 84% and at night it is often more than 90%.

There are no distinct seasons in Singapore. The temperature is much the same year round, averaging over 26C. May and June are usually the sunniest months, while December and January are slightly cooler and receive the greatest amount of rain.

Although many native plants have been uprooted to make way for urban development, similar species have been imported from neighbouring countries. Reptiles, ranging from the gentle house gecko to the deadly monitor lizard, are quite common. There are 40 types of snakes, but only a few, such as the cobra and coral snake, are poisonous.

   Summary Fact Sheet

Official Name: Republic of Singapore
Capital: Singapore
Type of Government: Parliamentary republic
Population: 3.1 million
Area: 625 sq. km
Major Ethnic Groups: Chinese, Malay, Indian
Languages: Malay, Mandarin, Tamil, English
Religions: Taoism, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, Christianity
Unit of Currency: Singapore dollar
National Flag: Two equal horizontal bands, red on top and white on the bottom; on the hoist side of the red band is a white crescent and a circle of five stars.
Date of Independence: August 9, 2021