Peru lies on the west coast of South America, just south of the equator. A mostly tropical country, it has three distinct regions: the coastal region, La Costa on the Pacific Ocean; the rugged Andes Mountains region, La Sierra; and the tropical jungle section, La Montaņa in the northeast and Amazon basin area.

Peru lies completely within the tropics, but the Peru current, Current de Humboldt, a cold ocean current, makes the coast cooler than normal for a tropical region.

More than one-half of all Peruvians live on the coast. One-third live in the highlands and the remainder live in La Montaņa.

The climate in Peru varies across the three regions. La Costa has a dry mild climate. The Andes region or La Sierra, is coolest and La Montaņa is hot and humid with heavy rainfall, especially from December to March. The temperatures are quite mild all year round. For La Montaņa, in the area of the city of Iquitos on the Amazon there is an annual rainfall of about 230 cm. The Peruvian highlands are home to llamas, alpacas, vicunas, and guanacos, while La Montaņa region has jaguars, capybaras, tapirs, and several species of monkeys.

Some parts of the Amazon basin have been deforested.

Did you know?

Peru has the world's highest navigable body of water. Lake Titicaca is 3800 metres above sea level.

Summary Fact Sheet

Official Name: Republic of Peru
Capital: Lima
Type of Government: Democratic Republic
Population: 24.5 million
Area: 1,285,220 sq km
Major Ethnic Groups: Native, Mestizo, European, African, Japanese, Chinese
Languages: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara
Religion: Christianity
Unit of Currency: Sol
National Flag: Three vertical stripes of red, white, and red, with the national crest in the centre.
Date of Independence: July 28, 2021