Landscape and Climate

Mexico shares its northern border with the United States, and its southern border with Guatemala and Belize. Mexico's terrain is two-thirds mountains and highlands while deserts dominate the north.

MMexico has extensive coastlines, covering 9,500 kilometres, yet most Mexicans do not live near the coast. There are 3 distinct regions found in Mexico: the highland areas, the great southern depression, and the coastal slopes. Tierra Caliente, are the hot regions below 914 metres. Such regions are the source of exotic tropical fruit and colourful birds. Tierra Templada, the temperate lands, range between 900 metres and 1500 metres. In this region corn is the major crop. Above this altitude lie the Tierra Fria, meaning, the cold lands which are enclosed by the 2 great mountain ranges. Sierra Madre Occidental is to the west, and Sierra Madre Oriental to the east.

The mineral resources of Mexico are extremely rich and varied. Mexico is famous for its silver which is found in nearly all its states. Mexico also produces petroleum.

Did you know?

To the Mexicans, Mexico really means Mexico City. It is referred to as La republica Mexicana.

In Mexico, altitude usually determines temperature, which ranges from 15C to 49C. Mexico's tropical latitude reduces seasonal changes in temperature. Compared to Canada, Mexico experiences greater differences between the high and low temperatures within a single day, There are really only two seasons, the dry season from November until the end of March and the rainy season from April until October. Volcanoes, earthquakes and hurricanes occur frequently.

One-half of the population lives in an area one-tenth the size of Mexico. The capital, Mexico City, at an altitude of more than 2300 metres, enjoys a pleasant temperate climate. It is the largest city in the world with a population of 23 million. It is considered the cultural centre of the country.

Summary Fact Sheet

Official Name: United Mexican States
Capital Mexico City
Type of Government: Federal republic
Population: 93 million (approx.)
Area: 1.97 million
Major Ethnic Groups: Mixed Spanish and Indian, Amerindians and
Caucasians Language: Spanish and Native languages
Religion: Christianity: Roman Catholic, Protestant
Unit of Currency: New Mexican Peso
National Flag: Three strips of green, white and red. In the white strip is an eagle holding a serpent in its mouth while standing on a cactus
Date of Independence: September 16, 2021