About 97% of Libyans are Muslim. Most are Sunni Muslim, which is considered the orthodox mainstream of Islam. Most Berbers belong to the Ibadite sect of Islam. In Libya, church and state are not separated. The religious laws of Islam (sharia) are part of the country's legal system. All other laws must conform to Islamic law. Religious practices and holidays are strictly observed.

Muslims believe that Mohammed, who lived in the 7th century A.D., is the last prophet of Allah (God). An angel brought him teachings from God about what people should believe and how they should live. Mohammed told what he had heard to his followers, who wrote down his words. These teachings are collected in the Qur'an, Islam's holy book.

Muslims observe certain practices, known as the Five Pillars of Islam. The first is shahada, an affirmation of faith: "There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is His prophet." The second, salat, is the commitment to pray five times a day facing Mecca. Zakat is the giving of alms to the poor. The fourth pillar is saum, the annual fast during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Muslim calendar. During this time, Muslims do not eat between sunrise and sunset. The fifth pillar is hajj, which requires all Muslims who can afford it to make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime.

Although Islam is generally not tolerant of superstition, folk beliefs persist in Libya. Some people still believe that evil spirits (jinn) live in haunted places and have the power to curse people. Some Libyans wear charms to protect themselves.

Although most Tuaregs are Muslims, they have some unique beliefs. For example, they believe that when people sleep, their souls can leave their bodies and wander the earth. Dead souls can also roam and bring wisdom to the living. Some Tuaregs believe that by sleeping on the grave of a dead person, one gains the ability to foretell the future.

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Some Muslims believe that dreams are sent by Allah and are therefore very important. It is thought that dreams can mean their opposite; for example, a bad dream is a good omen. Some people are reputed to be able to interpret dreams, and people seek them out to ask their advice.