Argentina occupies the southeastern part of South America. Argentina's most northerly point lies above the Tropic of Capricorn. The most southerly point is only a few hundred miles from Antarctica. The distance from north to south is greater than 3,500 km.

 The Andes Mountains separate Argentina from Chile to the west and Bolivia to the north. Paraguay lies across the Pilcomayo, Paraná and Paraguay Rivers to the north, and the Uruguay River separates Argentina from Brazil and Uruguay to the east. The Atlantic Ocean surrounds the rest of the country.

As Argentina lies south of the equator, its seasons are the opposite of the seasons in the Northern Hemisphere. The hottest months are January and February and the coldest months are July and August. The temperature varies greatly from the north to the south.

 Along the northern border is the Gran Chaco marshland. This region has mild, dry winters and hot, wet summers. In the northeast is a region known as Mesopotamia - a flat, subtropical rainforest area.

The central region known as the Pampas has lakes, flat grasslands and fertile soil. This area is good for agriculture and raising livestock. Argentina's southernmost region is Patagonia, a dry, windswept plateau, which rises to elevations of 1,500 metres and is marked by deep canyons. This area includes part of Tierra del Fuego, an archipelago separated from the rest of the country by the Strait of Magallanes. Ushuaiaon Tierra del Fuego is the southernmost town in the world.

 In Western Argentina are the Andes Mountains. The mountains are dry in the north, but further south, the mountain range receives increasing rainfall and there are many mountain lakes and glaciers. Mount Tronador (tronador means "the thunderer") was named for the cracking sound these glaciers make as they melt and break up under the summer sun.

   Summary Fact Sheet 


Official Name:

República Argentina 


Buenos Aires

Type of Government:

Federal republic 


36.1 million


2.8 million sq. km 

Major Ethnic Groups: 

Spanish, Italian, indigenous peoples (including Colla, Toba, Wichi, Mapuche, Guarani)


Spanish, Italian, English, French, German, indigenous languages


Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism, Islam

Unit of Currency: 


National Flag: 

Three horizontal stripes, the top and bottom sky blue with a white stripe in the middle, and a sun superimposed in the centre.

Date of Independence:

July 9, 2021